We want to eliminate pain before training. That's an important horse training principle. So here's the question.
When your horse acts up, do you know what's "really" wrong?
Is he just being a jerk?
Is he fearful?
Does he just not know what you want?
How do you tell?
Here's a few insights that'll help you.
First, if your horse acts up but it's out of character...then you can pretty much rule out he's being a jerk or that it's a typical behavior thing.
It "could" be fear. To check, look at his body language. Is his head up